Key of European species of Tomentella incl. Odontia 




A.    Hyphae clamped


B.    Clamps absent or occasionally present




1a.   Cystidia present


1b.   Cystidia absent




2a.   Cystidia hyphoid 55-95 x 3-4 m, growing from subiculum and rhizomorphs,


        hymenophore hazel-brown to olive-brown, smooth to granulose,


        margin byssoid with brownish dimitic rhizomorphs,


        spores irregular 8,5-10 m 


        Tomentella atroarenicolor Nikol. 1970




2b.   Cystidia acuminate, capitate or clavate




3a.   Cystidia acuminate (basally widened, rarely hyphoid)


3b.   Cystidia capitate


3c.   Cystidia clavate




4a.   Hymenophore  hazel-brown, granulose,


        cystidia somewhat distended base and tapering towards the slightly,

        expanded apices, often apical encrusted with brown deposits,


        some spores reddish brown in KOH


        Tomentella subtestacea Bourd. & Galz.1924




4b.   Hymenophore greyish-green, smooth to granulose, mucedinoid,


        cystidia apical slightly incrusted


        Tomentella galzinii Bourd. 1924




5a.   Cystidia pale brownish to greenish


        basidiocarps separable, dimitic rhizomorphs present,


        hymenophore yellowish-brown to olive-brown,


        Tomentella pilosa (Burt) Bourd. & Galz. 1924




5b.   Cystidia hyaline,


        basidiocarps adherent, without rhizomorphs,


        hymenophore greyish-green to olive-brown,


        Tomentella viridula Bourd.& Galz.1924




6a.   Basidiocarps separable, rhizomorphs present,                             


        hymenophore greyish-brown to hazel-brown, smooth,
        subicular hyphae brownish, thick-walled

        Tomentella subpilosa Litsch 1960


        (similar to T. muricata, an American species)




6b.   Basidiocarps adherent, rhizomorphs absent,


        subicular hyphae hyaline and thin-walled                       




7a.   Spores irregular, partly lobed


        Tomentella clavigera Litsch. 1960




7b.   Spores regular globose to ellipsoid,


        subiculum thin to absent,


        subhymenial hyphae partly short celled and inflated


        Tomentella subclavigera Litsch. 1933




8a.   Spores up to 6 m  (measurement without spines)                               


8b.   Spores larger




9a. Spores 3-4 m,


hymenophore short-spined, rusty yellowish


Tomentella (Odontia) duemmeri (Wakef.) M.J. Larsen 1974




9b.   Spores tubercular, globose 5-6 m,


        hymenophore ferruginous-brown, smooth to hydnoid,


        margin byssoid, dimitic rhizomorphs


        Tomentella (Odontia) calcicola (Bourd. & Galz.) M.J. Larsen 1967



9c.   Spores echinulate, globose 4,5-5,5 m, Basidia to 30 m long,


        hymenophore brownish, smooth,


        without rhizomorphs


        Tomentella griseoumbrina Litsch. 1936




10a.  Spores ornaments bifurcate


10b.  Spores ornaments not bifurcate                               



11a.  Hymenophore hydnoid, ferruginous brown,


         rhizomorphs dimitic,


         spores brownish, subglobose 7-8 m


         Tomentella (Odontia) crinalis (Fr.) M.J. Larsen 1967




11b.  Hymenophore tubercular or hydnoid, rare smooth, greyish-brown,

         rhizomorphs monomitic,


         spores hyaline, subglobose, partly irregular 8-10 m


         Tomentella italica (Sacc.) M.J. Larsen 1967




11c. Hymenophore smooth, ferruginous-brown, without rhizomorphs,

Tomentella sp. FD 8792



12a.  Immaturity basidia vesicular up to 20 m wide, mature basidia up to 85 m long, 


         hymenophore smooth, fawn, basidiocarps compact,


         spores irregular subglobose 7-9,5 m


         Tomentella terrestris (Berk. & Broome) M.J. Larsen 1974




12b.  Not with this combination of characters                             




13a.  Spores average 6-7 m

        (if hyphae short celled and inflated go to 30)




13b.  Spores average larger



14a.  Subicular hyphae thick-walled, brown, incrusted, up to 6 m wide,


         hymenophore greyish-brown to dark brown, granulose,


         spores partly irregular globose

         Tomentella neobourdotii M.J. Larsen 1968



14b.  Subicular hyphae thin-walled




15a. Hymenophor greyish, brownish or ferruginous-yellowish




15b. Hymenophore whitish to yellowish or pale ochre

Tomentella ochraceo-olivacea Litsch. 1933

(Syn. Tomentella fatrensis Svrček 1958)



16a.   Hymenophore greyish, smooth to granulose,

          spores globose to subglobose    

          Tomentella cinerascens (P. Karst.) Hoehn. & Litsch. 1906




16b.  Hymenophore brownish to ferruginous-brown, spores irregular, lobed



17a.  Basidia and hyphae strong cyanescent (hyphae and basidia bluish-green,

         to bluish black in KOH), hymenophore blackish brown,


         rhizomorphs distinct, margin and subiculum ferruginous-yellowish


         Tomentella botryoides (Schwein.) Bourd. & Galz. 1924


17b.  Basidia and hyphae not cyanescent, rhizomorphs absent


         hymenophore brownish, margin and subiculum same coloured 


         Tomentella sp.  FD 7548




18a.  Spores subglobose or ellipsoid, not lobed          


18b.  Spores with irregular outline, often lobed     




19a.  Spores ellipsoid (lateral view)                     


19b.  Spores subglobose (lateral view)                        




20a.  Subicular hyphae hyaline, thin-walled,


         subhymenial hyphae short celled and inflated,


         spores 7-9(10) m long


         Tomentella ellisii (Sacc.) Jlich & Stalpers 1980




20b.  Subicular hyphae brown, thick-walled,


         subhymenial hyphae not short celled and inflated,


         spores 8-12 m long, partly irregular 


         Tomentella atramentaria Rostr. 1894



21a.  Subicular hyphae thin-walled


21b.  Subicular hyphae thick-walled




22a.  Hymenophore greyish-brown, tubercular, spores 8-11 m,


         basidiocarps separable, rhizomorphs present,


         subiculum white, margin yellow to white


         Tomentella asperula (P. Karst.) Hoehn. & Litsch. 1906



22b.  Hymenophore pale brown to brick, spores 7-8,5 m


         (forms of T. lateritia 32a. and T. coerulea 33b. with more regular spores)



23a.  Spores yellowish


23b.  Spores brown




24a.  Hymenophore olive-greenish

         Tomentella viridescens (Bres. & Torr.) Bourd. & Galz. 1928 


24b. Hymenophor ferruginous-brown


25a. Spores with long spines, regular globose 7-11 m,

apiculus amyloid

Tomentella byrophila (Pers.) M.J. Larsen 1974



25b. Spores with short spines, irregular globose to ellipsoid -8,5 m,

apiculus not amyloid

Tomentella ferruginella Bourd. & Galz. 1924


26a.  Spores globose to subglobose, 8,5 -11 m, spines up to 3 m,


Subicular hyphae not incrusted


         Tomentella stuposa (Link) Stalpers 1984 s. l.


-- Spores 6,5 - 8 m cf. Tomentella globosa X. Lu, K. Steffen & H.S. Yuan 2018

-- Spores 8 - 10 m Tomentella stuposa (Link) Stalpers 1984 s. str.

-- Spores 10 - 13 m Tomentella bresadolae (Brinkmann) Hhn. & Litsch. 1908



26b. Spores subglobose to ellipsoid, 7,5-9, 5 m, partly irregular




27a.  Subicular hyphae incrusted, spores spines up to 2 m, apiculus partly amyloid


         Tomentella lapida s.l.


         (incl. Tomentella fuliginea und Tomentella ramosissima)


27b.  Subicular hyphae not incrusted, spores with short spines

         Tomentella alpina Peintner & Dmmrich 2011




28a.  Spores with long spines up to 2,5 m, hymenophore smooth, fawn to rosy-buff,


         margin byssoid to fimbriat, rhizomorphs present


         Tomentella testaceogilva Bourd. & Galz. 1924




28b.  Not with the above combination of characters




29a.  Subhymenial hyphae to 8 (10) m wide, partly short celled and inflated


29b.  Subhymenial hyphae to 5,5 m wide, regular       




30a.  Spores rough tuberculate-echinulate 8-12 m,       

         a few warts bifurcate, mostly spores with oiltrops

         hyphae to 7 m wide, margin often fimbriat, partly rhizomorphs present


         Thelephora terrestris f. resupinata Donk 1933


         (Syn. ? Tomentella radiosa (P. Karst.) Rick 1934)




30b.  Spores with long spines 7-9 m,

         hyphae to 10 m wide, inflated up to 15 m wide,


         margin undetermined, rhizomorphs absent


         Tomentella sublilacina (Ellis & Holw.) Wakef. 1960




31a.  Subiculum partly thin, rhizomorphs rarely, 

         basidia partly with reddish contents (examines in distilled water!)


         hymenial with amber-tinted adhering material, solving in KOH

         and partly cyanescent 




31b.  Subiculum and rhizomorphs distinctly,    


         basidia not reddish in distilled water




32a.  Hymenophore brick-red, not cyanescent

        Tomentella lateritia Pat. 1894



32b. Hymenophore brownish




33a.  Hymeniophora dark brown, distinctly cyanescent            


         Tomentella molybdaea Bourdot & Galzin 1924   


33b.  Hymenophore pale brownish, not cyanescent


         Tomentella coerulea (Bres.) Hoehn. & Litsch. 1908




34a.  Basidia and hyphae cyanescent (hyphae and basidia partly bluish-green in KOH),


         hymenophore ferruginous-brown to olive-brown, granulose, 


         margin partly yellowish, rhizomorphs dimitic


         Tomentella ferruginea (Pers.) Pat. 1887


         (Remarks: If hymenophore blackish-brown view 17a.)




34b.  Basidia and hyphae not cyanescent




35a.  Hymenophore pale brownish with greenish or reddish tints, granulose, margin,

         byssoid, ferruginous-brown, rhizomorphs monomitic or rarely dimitic


         Tomentella punicea (Alb. & Schwein.) J. Schrt. 1889   




35b.  Hymenophore ferruginous-reddish to chestnut-brown, smooth to tubercular, 


         margin ferruginous-reddish, rhizomorphs dimitic


         Tomentella umbrinospora M.J. Larsen 1968




36a.  Spores ornaments bifurcate                                       


36b.  Spores ornaments not bifurcate                           




37a.  Hymenophore tubercular to hydnoid, cinnamon brown,


         spores slightly globose with short bifurcate ornaments 6-8 m,


         with thick-walled up to 200 m long tramal pseudocystidia


         Tomentella (Odontia) fibrosa (Berk. & Curtis) Kljalg 1996




37b.  Hymenophore smooth


         (cf. Pseudotomentella!)




38a.  Spores brown                                                            


38b.  Spores hyaline (cf. Tomentellopsis!)




39a.  Occasionally clamps present,

subicular hyphae and subhymenial hyphae occasionally clamps present,

spores regular to irregular ellipsoid, 8-12 m long, spines up to 1,5 m

Tomentella cinereoumbrina (Bres.) Stalpers 1993




39b.  All hyphae without clamps




40a.  Spores regular globose 79 m,  spines up to 3 m


         Tomentella spinosispora Cizek  2004


  (the type is described with clamps-bearing subicular hyphae,

but now recognised as alien hyphae, E. Martini 2021)




40b. Spores ellipsoid or irregular globose




41a.  Basidiocarps thick, crustose, margin usually byssoid to fimbriate, mostly on soil   


         Tomentella fuscocinerea (Pers.) Donk 1933


         (=Thelephora fuscocinerea Pers.)




41b.  Basidiocarps thin, tomentelloid, mostly on wood




42a.  Spores with spines up to 2,5 m, spores irregular globose,


         basidiocarps mucedinoid


         Tomentella badia (Link) Stalpers 1975


         (if spores regular globose view 42a.)



42b.  Spores with spines up to 1,5 m, spores regular ellipsoid


         Tomentella cf. brunneofirma M.J. Larsen 1967